Kazakhstan 9

Daulet Myktybayev & Zhappas Kalambayev
Asyl Mura - 2005
Daulet Myktybayev
1. Ykylas “Korkyt”
2. Ykylas “Airaukty Naschi Kyi”
3. Ykylas “Shynyrau”
4. Sarbiyev “Sary Arka” (Golden Steppe)
5. Ykylas “Еrden”
6. Ykylas “Zhalgyz Ayak”
7. Ykylas “Zholaushynyn Konyr Kyi”
8. Ykylas “Zholaushynyn Konyr Kyi”
9. Ykylas “Kazan”
10. Ykylas “Kertolgau”
11. Ykylas “Kambar Batyr”
12. Folk kyi “Akku” (White Swan)
Zhappas Kalambayev
13. Korkyt “Konyr”
14. Ykylas “Munlyk-Zarlyk”
15. Ykylas “Khanshaim”
16. Folk song “Kanattaldy”
17. Folk song “Shynar-ai”
18. Folk song “Gaini”
19. Okili Ybrai “Gakku”
20. Аbai “Kozimnin Karasy”
21. Sadyk Karimbayev “Koktem” (Spring)
22. Folk song “Karatorgai” (Sparrow)
23. Zhayau Musa “Kokarshyn” (Dove)
24. Folk song “Saulemai” 2nd version
25. Тattimbet “Sylkyldak”
26. Folk kyi “Kaskyr” (Wolf)
27. Ykylas “Zhez Kiik”
Zhappas Kalambayev and Daulet Myktybayev
The origin of kobyz is connected with the name of the legendary Коrkyt – the first musician and patron of shamans. Legend has it that when Korkyt was 20 years old, he saw a dream in which some people said to him that he will live only 40 years. So, Korkyt decided to seek immortality. He saddled his camel Zhelmaya up and went on a journey. Wherever Korkyt went, he met the people in white attires digging a grave for him. Then Korkyt returned to the “center of land” – the Syr-Dariya river. Here, he sacrificed his camel and made an instrument in which the skin of Zhelmaya served as the upper deck. Then he laid a carpet on the surface of water and, sitting on it, played a “song of life” on kobyz. As Korkyt was playing, the death did not dare approach him. But once, completely exhausted, Korkyt fell asleep for a moment, and the death in the image of snake overtook him: Kairak-zhylan bit Korkyt, and he died. The legend has reached us with the kui “Korkyt”, glorifying the great power of music capable to defeat death.
Kobyz is the instrument of surprising form and unusually expressive rich timbre. One people compare it with a bird: “The sounds of it, when touching its strings made of horse's hair with the bows also made of horse's hair, are similar to the swan's shout, as well as the instrument itself has the form of a swan” (P. Pallas). The others heard a human voice in the sounds of kobyz (B. Sarybayev), “sad and sorrowful” (I. Gmelin). Each of 2 strings and a bow consist of 40 long horse's hair. The height of sound is regulated by a touch of the tips of nails or fingers “by the weight” above the body of the instrument (the play of frazholets). From here is the originality of sounding rich with overtones.
This instrument's lot has been a hard one. Kobyz can be named as an original carrier of ethnic history of the Kazakhs presented by the epic literature and instrumental music. However, this did not protect it from persecutions. Initially, kobyz was the instrument of shamans (baksy), and it was this circumstance that became a convenient reason for withdrawing it from the new built civilized world “as a vestige of the dark past”, and thus “condemning it to disappearance” ( А . Zatayevich). As a consequence, with the beginning of the 20 th century, new kyis (instrumental music) were not been composed for this musical instrument. Also, the family traditions of playing kobyz “from father to son” began to abandon. The last legendary classic of kobyz music was Yklas Dukenov, who was born in the mid-19 th century. There were many attempts to recreate the forgotten culture, but only few managed to break “through time”. Among such musicians were Zhappas Kalambayev (1909-1970) and Daulet Myktybayev (1904-1976). We are obliged to them for preserving the traditions of playing this instrument and musical kobyz heritage. Due to these musicians the invaluable creations of the past were recorded. They were the first to enter the concert stage and the first to become the teachers of the kyl-kobyz class opened at the Almaty Conservatoire in 1968.
Zhappas Kalambayev was born in 1909 in the Talap collective farm, Suzak region of Shymkent oblast. From childhood he mastered the art of playing kobyz independently. He learned Yklas' kyis from Yklas' pupil – the dombra player Sugur. It was Zhappas Kalambayev who returned the works of the classic of kobyz music, Yklas, from dombra versions to kyl-kobyz. Zh. Kalambayev was the participant of the 1 st Republican Meeting of Fork Performers held in 1934. He was at source of the creation of the Kurmangazy Orchestra of Folk Musical Instruments, and was the soloist and concertmaster of the alto-kobyz group (1934-1967). In the words of А . Zhubanov, “ the kobyz players performing now at the Kurmangazy Orchestra (1950s-1960s), took the first lessons from Zh. Kalambayev”. Among his pupils are the People's Artists of the Kazakh SSR G. Bayazitova and F. Balgayeva, and the candidate of sciences in art, professor B. Sarybayev. With the opening of the kyl-kobyz class, Zh. Kalambayev taught this instrument at the Almaty Conservatoire (1968-1970), combining teaching with active concert activity. He is known as a collector of musical folklore, who recorded and deciphered the unique pieces of folk music. He was the author of his own compositions – kyis and romances – and was among the first members, who entered the structure of the Union of Composers of Kazakhstan (1939). The Kazakhstan government has highly appraised Zhappas Kalambayev's work by awarding him the honorable title “The Honored Art Figure of the Kazakh SSR” (1944). He was also awarded the “Order of the Red Banner” and medals.
Daulet Myktybayev was the descendant of the legendary Yklas. He was born in 1904 in the Korgaldzhy region of Tselinograd oblast. He inherited the art of playing kyl-kobyz from Yklas's pupil, Abiken Tokhtamysyly, while the best kyis for kobyz – from his uncle Tusupbek, the son of Yklas. D. Myktybayev started his creative activity at the Karaganda Regional Radio Committee (1933). His first serious public performance was held at the 1 st Republican Meeting of Folk Performers in 1934. In Karaganda , D. Myktybayev began his concert activity as a soloist of the Regional Philarmonic Society (1937). However, this work was interrupted by the Great Patriotic War, at the front of which he served all its years (1941-1945). Upon returning from the front, D. Myktybayev connected his life with Alma-Ata , where he worked as a soloist-kobyz player at the Zhambyl Kazakh State Philarmonic Society and Ка zakhconcert (1945-1965). Like Zh. Kalambayev, he led the kyl-kobyz class at the Almaty Conservatoire (1970-1976). Among his pupils are many remarkable followers continuing Yklas' traditions: the Honored Art Figure of the Kazakh SSR К . Azhmuratov; head of the kobyz and bayan faculty of the Conservatoire, professor B. Kosbasarov; and the teacher of the K. Baiseitova Musical School А . Zhumabekov. D. Myktybayev has his own compositions for kobyz – kyis and transpositions of folk music.
The main difficulty the performers are facing today is a lack of repertoir. On the thorny path to kobyz survival there were serious losses. We know about some kyis due to the legends accompanying the performance of kyis, because the tradition assumed the retelling of the plot ether prior to the performance of kyis, “kyi and legend”, or inserting in kyi – “kyi with legend”, “kui in legend”, or “kyi-legend” ( А . Mukhambetova). Filling up a repertoire was also the merit of Zhappas Kalambayev and Daulet Myktybayev. They were the first who began to transpose the Kazakh folk songs and dombra music to kobyz, thus considerably enriching the repertoire of performers.
Unfortunately, the available fund lacks recordings in the performance of the outstanding kobyz players, Zhappas Kalambayev and Daulet Myktybayev. Some of these recordings are of poor quality, but nevertheless the present CD covers the most significant genres of kyl-kobyz music. This is a traditional genre of kyi represented by the compositions of the primogenitor of kobyz music, Korkyt, “K о nyr” (13), folk kyis “Akky” and “Kaskyr” (12, 26), and kyis of the outstanding Yklas (1, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10,11, 14, 15, 27), as well as by the “secondary” genres-transpositions of Kazakh instrumental and song cultures represented by the “Sylgyldak” dombra kyi by Tattimbet (25), songs by Ibrai (19), Zhayau Musa (23), А bai (20), S. Karimbayev (21), Sarbiyev (4), and folk pieces (16, 17, 18, 22, 24).
We would like to thank Sayan Akmolda for the information and advices in the compilation of this CD.

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