Mestre Cardoso

Mestre Cardoso
Galo de Campina (2005)
1. As origens de Ourém (5:38)
2. Galo de campina (3:10)
3. Sereia (2:27)
4. Baiana (2:18)
5. Mandamento da cachaça (4:24)
6. Eu mandei fazer uma rosa (2:51)
7. Ataque de nova York (3:10)
8. A prisão de Saddam Hussein (2:45)
9. Baralho (8:13)
10. Mandei fazer uma trincheira ontem (2:50)
11. Marcha do Clube do Remo (2:04)
12. Marcha do Paysandu (2:16)
13. O namoro de hoje em dia (2:54)
14. Adeus morena (5:16)

The Musicians:

Aristides Borges ("cavaquinho");
João "Cego" da Silva Matos (accordion and choir);
Raimundo "Tuíca" da Silva Matos (percussions and choir);
Fábio Cavalcante (flute and choir);
Lila Bemerguy (choir) and
Mestre Cardoso (percussions and voice).

Produced, arranged and recorded by Fábio Cavalcante.

This record was released in october 2005, in Ourém (PA).

It shows Cardoso singing marchs, sambas, "xotes" and "carimbós".
Here is a brief biography of Mestre Cardoso:

"José Ribamar Cardoso" was born in Parnaíba - Piauí, in january 4, 1933. His parents were João Cândido Cardoso and Maria Francisca Cardoso. He started playing the "boi-bumbá" with 10 years and with 14 years he was commanding the "Dominante".

When he was 20 years, he came to Maranhão State, where he met his wife Raimunda Lima da Silva. They had 14 sons, but only six survived. In 1954, they moved to Carutapera, and soon afterwards, to the Pará State. Cardoso arrived in Ourém in 1993, and has been living there until now.

Cardoso worked as cowboy in every place he lived. Currently, he leads the "Boi-bumbá Ouro Fino".

On this record, the tracks 'Eu mandei fazer uma rosa', 'O Ataque de Nova York', 'A prisão de Saddam Hussein', 'Mandei fazer uma trincheira ontem ' and 'Adeus morena', are played by the Ouro Fino's members.
Galo de campina

Lá no jardim da princesa / No pátio do varandão
Tem muito pássaro bonito / Preso em um gaiolão
Tem sabiá verdadeiro / Canário e corrupião
E o galo de campina é campeão

Quem quiser ver belos pássaros / Vá no museu de Belém
Diferentes uns dos outros / Que só na mata é que tem
Mas se você não conhece / Eu acho bom ir também
Para ficar sabendo e querer bem

Tem muitos pássaros que andam / Parece que vai à praça
Uns cantam outros assoviam / E já outros acham graça
Tem deles de médio porte / Deles parece de raça
E nós temos a boniteza da garça

Tudo é da natureza / E para o homem ficou
Tem a terra e as águas / Foi Jesus que separou
Tem ave que é feroz / Com diferença de cor
E o pássaro Uirapuru é traidor
...and if you like it, there is more at the "source" including all the lyrics!

about the the producer:

 Hi, my name is Fábio Gonçalves Cavalcante.

I am 33 years old, musician, and I live in Santarém, Capital of Pará. My available material is free for non-comercial copy, use and abuse. Feel free. 

Well I did :) Thank you Fábio & Mestre Cardoso!


Bom apetite!

Sotaque maranhense na arte de cozinhar
Wellington Reis e José Ignacio

01 Peixe ao Escabeche na costa de mão
02 Cuxá Orquestrado
03 Cururu Mina-Jeje
04 Divino doce de calda cacuriado no crioula
05 Sururu chorado no leite de coco
06 Caldeirada de camarão na baixada
07 Peixe frito no samba
08 Vatapá no coco catulé
09 Torta de camarão zabumbada
10 Casquinho de caranguejo no cordão do bicho
11 Arroz de mariscos no lelé
12 Licor de cupu - Instrumental
Carrasqueira (Antônio) : flautas
Ubiratan Sousa : violão 7, cavaco, violão 6, banjo (Arroz de Mariscos No Lelê); agogô e surdo (Divino Doce de Calda Cacuriado no Crioula); tamborim (Cuxá Orquestrado) e “papel na mão” (no Arroz de Mariscos No Lelê).
Paulinho : piston
Valdir : trombone
Sumé : sax
Pitoco : clarinete
Mauro Brucli: cello
Ari: baixo
Gordo Elinaldo: banjo (Cuxá Orquestrado)
Marco Barros: violão (Peixe ao Escabeche Na Costa de Mão)
Tomaz: rabecas e violino
Miltinho: bandolim
José Pretinho e Wellington “Chororó”: percussão e efeitos
José Ignácio e Wellington Reis: ambientação de feira livre (vozes solo)
Inácio Pinheiro, Roberto Brandão, Fátima Passarinho, Luciana Pinheiro e Wellington Reis: Coro

"The momentum and obvious thought - intelligent thought - is treating this album like a feast, making analogies between the well-seasoned, well eaten and well digested.

Come as if ...

And this would be the "crack" of the alleged genius. I, however, far from genius, I prefer to treat this album as it in fact is an honest and lucid moment of poetry. And only those who know art works of the immense difficulties that exist, making it simple, keep it beautiful.

They say the most demanding gourmets, in fact, proper seasoning is in the fingertips of those who cook. It is not enough, therefore, mix salt, lemon and onion in order to get certain flavor. If it were, everyone who knew a few words would do a verse worthy of the name. The difference, therefore, is who got the words or mixed seasonings.

This disc, in turn, is a perfect blend. It tastes like a Sunday morning and the smell of white towels. Suggests beers. It brings together friends, close people, you need not hear the laughter to know they exist.
It's morning in this album. Morning of St. Louis: clear, passionate, evocative, beautiful.

There are Tiquiras before.
There are laughs later.
There is sunshine.

(Américo Azevedo Neto)



A Coroa É Nossa - Bumba-Meu-Boi De Maracanã



1. Disperta Maracanã
2. Touro Tricampeao
3. Palmeira do Babacu
4. Lua Bela
5. Estrela de Maio
6. Aldeia de Tupinambá
7. Cantador Teleguiado
8. Linda Donzela
9. Brenhas da Ilha
10. Urro do Boi
11. Professor Dispeitado
12. Ilha de Guarapirá
13. Cinco Letras
14. Banzeiro Grande
15. Reis do Alecrim
16. Coroa de Menino Jesus
"BUMBA-MEU-BOI"  (bumba-boi, boi-bumbá, etc.) is a very popular and widespread comic-dramatic dance, which tells the story of the death and resurrection of an ox. Boi Bumba roughly translates to "Beat the Bull." Its name comes from the verb bumbar, meaning to beat up or against, and the expression is chanted by the crowd as an invitation for the ox (or rather, the men under the ox costume) to charge against them.

The Ox Dance festival is based on a tale that was brought to the small town of Parantins by migrants who came to the region to seek their fortune during the rubber extraction boom in the early 1900s. There are several variations of the legend, but a common version describes the story of a rich farmer who gives his favorite boi, or ox, as a gift to his beloved daughter, entrusting it to the care of a faithful ranch hand, Pae Francisco. Mae Caterina, Francisco's pregnant wife, develops a strange craving for the a  bull's tongue, and Pae Francisco kills the prize beast to satisfy his wife's need.

The crime is discovered, and after some adventures local Indians are called to help capture Francisco in his forest hideout. He is brought before the farmer and threatened with death as punishment. However, St John the Baptist visits the farmer's dreams and warns him not to kill the couple.  Desperate, Pae Francisco tries to resuscitate the ox. With the help of spiritual shamans, called Curandeiros, the Caterina and Francisco are able to harness the power of the drum beat to resurrect the ox and save the couple from harm. All ends well, with Francisco being forgiven.

The festival started on a modest scale in 1913 as a simple street procession. Over time, the festival, the story, and the characters have changed to incorporate local Indian legends, rituals, music, and dances and to keep the enactment fresh for the keen competition. The festival also celebrates the traditional lifestyle of the Caboclo,  the present-day Amazonian, and the story's native characters have gradually come to the fore, gaining in importance.

The annual festival takes place the weekend before June 24 over three days. Parantins' two samba schools, Garantido and Caprichoso, compete for the year's best presentation of the legend in a huge outdoor arena in front of thousands of spectators. Today, the festival rivals the world-famous carnival celebrations of Rio and Salvador, and its themes, characters and motifs are strongly tied to the national identity of Brazil. 

A voz de Humberto

A cultura popular na voz de Humberto de Maracanã
Por Luiza Delamare

É principalmente pela voz de Humberto Barbosa Mendes que as toadas no sotaque da matraca são interpretadas no Boi de Maracanã. Humberto de Maracanã, como é mais conhecido, já se tornou um símbolo das festas de bumba-meu-boi e do Maranhão. Para compor as toadas, ele pesquisa e puxa as lembranças da memória. Com sua voz forte, invoca, em versos, as belezas da natureza, a força da mitologia, da encantaria e os mistérios da floresta. Ao seu comando, os pandeiros começam a vibrar e chamam os outros instrumentos, como a matraca e o tambor-onça.

Humberto está envolvido com a festa do boi desde criança, seu avô materno já fazia parte do Boi do Maracanã. Mas foi principalmente a partir da década de 70 que ele se integrou, de fato, ao grupo. O homem que começou como ajudante de cantor, hoje é um dos principais responsáveis pelo reconhecimento e divulgação da tradicional festa do bumba-meu-boi. Para isso, canta em qualquer lugar e viaja com gente do Maranhão para dançar e tocar em espaços bem menores do que está acostumado. Ao se apresentar em outras cidades se sente recompensado, pois isso mostra que a cultura popular está se expandindo. Mesmo assim, o mestre cantador não deixa de fazer sua crítica: “cada estado do país deveria ter mais espaço para exibir suas tradições culturais, mas é preciso, acima de tudo, sensibilidade para investir na cultura popular”.

Para Humberto, o bumba-meu-boi é um símbolo de paz de um povo sofrido e humilde, uma festa que, quando começa, faz as pessoas esquecerem até que estão com fome.
Até hoje, nunca conseguiu viver apenas com o dinheiro que ganha de seu trabalho cultural. Quando jovem foi lavrador e agora é funcionário público em fase de aposentadoria. Mas o reconhecimento desse grande mestre veio em gestos como a  Medalha de Honra ao mérito Lá Ravardière, concedida pela Câmara de Vereadores de São Luís no aniversário de 25 anos de carreira do cantador, além das homenagens da Assembléia Legislativa do Estado do Maranhão.
Vida de cantador: Humberto do Maracanã
Julio de Paula
Palmeiras balançam no Maracanã. O maracá de prata do Guriatã comanda o Batalhão de Ouro. No encalço do boi, a comunidade pulsa no sotaque da matraca.

Maracanã é bairro da zona rural de São Luís que mantém viva (e crescente) a tradição do bumba-meu-boi de matraca – ou sotaque da ilha. O Boi de Maracanã figura ao lado do Boi da Maioba como os dois maiores brinquedos do Maranhão.

Nascido em 1939, Humberto Barbosa Mendes tem o hábito do boi desde menino. Figura emblemática, iniciou-se como compositor e intérprete de toadas aos 12 anos de idade. Aos 34, tornou-se Cantador Humberto do Maracanã. Hoje é reconhecido pelo Ministério da Cultura como Mestre em Cultura Popular e um dos maiores divulgadores da tradição musical maranhense.

Cantador Humberto pertence à Velha Escola do Boi. Tem acompanhado a evolução da brincadeira – ou se adaptado aos novos tempos. De auto proibido (que se viu resguardado nas periferias de São Luís), ao atual fenômeno de turismo, os cinco sotaques do boi – matraca, orquestra, zabumba, costa de mão e pandeirões – correm soltos por ocasião dos festejos do mês de junho.

“O boi no Maranhão é secular, sempre existiu. Desde uns 20 anos pra cá, ele se desenvolveu bastante. Tem muitos grupos hoje”, diz Humberto em entrevista ao programa Veredas gravada no dia 16 de março de 2004, ocasião em que esteve em São Paulo como convidado do projeto Turista Aprendiz, do grupo A Barca.

Cantador Humberto é o Guriatã, porta-voz do boiato, sinônimo do lugar. A lira do cantador é seu maracá de prata. A toada nasce na boca do amo e cresce forte no batalhão, gigante como as árvores do quintal.

“O brasileiro, em alegria, sátira, sentimentalismo, piedade, justiça e arbítrio, samba e oração, está reunido no Bumba-meu-boi”. (Cascudo)

Get up my ox

"O meu boi morreu
O que será de mim?
Manda comprar outro, ó maninha
Lá no Piauí"

"My ox is dead
What’s gonna happen to me?
Get me a new one, oh, sister
In Piauí."


Johnny Can't Dance

Aldus Roger
A Cajun Legend


1.  Lafayette Two-Step (2:14)
2.  Steppin' Fast (2:31)
3.  Flames d'enfer (2:44)
4.  Fi Fi Poncho (2:47)
5.  Over The Waves (3:47)
6.  Jambalaya (2:48)
7.  Johnny Can't Dance (2:48)
8.  Lafayette Playboy Waltz (2:46)
9.  Hicks Wagon Wheel (2:42)
10.  Love Sick Waltz (2:51)
11.  Zydeco Sont Pas Sale (2:34)
12.  Un Autre Chance (3:21)
13.  Diga Ding Ding Dong (2:46)
14.  Louisiana Waltz (2:37)
15.  Mamou Two-Step (2:28)
16.  The Last Waltz (2:33)
17.  Wafus Two-Step (2:10)
18.  KLFY Waltz (2:41)
19.  Perrodin Two-Step (2:10)
20.  Jolie Blonde (2:44)
21.  Petite Au La Grosse (3:31)
22.  Creole Stomp (1:50)

Aldus Roger and the Lafayetter Playboys
Aldus Roger - vocal, accordion
Doc Guidry - fiddle
Fernice "Man" Abshire
Johnny Credeur
Phillip Alleman
Tunice Abshire
David Abshire
Harry Lee Mott
Louis Foreman
Tony Thibodeaux
Clarence Alleman
Vernon Bergeron
Gerald Touchet

It may seem a bit presumptuous for an artist's debut album to refer to him as a legend, but Aldus Roger's "A Cajun Legend" is justifiably titled. The Lafayette, Louisiana, native has been a local fixture for decades, appearing at festivals throughout the region and even starring in his own local television show for a spell. This compilation is taken from live performances and occasional studio dates, and covers a broad range, both in time and in the makeup of Roger's ever-shifting band, the Lafayette Playboys. Fiddler Doc Guidry is Roger's foil on most of it, and the album's most exciting moments come when Guidry and Roger trade off solos in good-natured cutting contests. The music and sound quality are extraordinary.

Cajun Legend plays the French Music of South Louisiana is a mid-'60s album from Aldus Roger, one of the most popular Cajun accordionists of the '50s and '60s. Featuring contributions form steel guitarist Phillip Alleman and fiddler Doc Guidry, the record accurately captures the exciting, eclectic atmosphere of Roger's dancehall concerts and features a fine version of his signature song, "Johnny Can't Dance." ~ Thom Owens, All Music Guide

Aldus Roger was best known for his television music program during the late 1950s and 1960s. He also recorded a Cajun French version of Hank Williams' hit "Jambalaya" (originally this was a Cajun song titled "Grand Texas").

Aldus Roger

Legendary accordionist who influenced a generation of Cajun music artists

The accordionist and bandleader Aldus Roger, who has died aged 83, was one of the most popular figures in Louisiana Cajun music in the 1950s. While his contemporary and fellow accordionist Lawrence Walker favoured a smooth sound, "Aldus's music was loud. More into full force," as singer/historian Johnnie Allan remembered.

Typical recordings from Roger, like Lafayette Two Step (1964) and Diga Ding Ding Dong (1966), spiced the standard Cajun stew of accordion, fiddle and steel guitar with thudding bass guitar and drums. In the case of Lafayette Two Step this might have amounted in traditionalists' eyes to heresy, since it was the first Cajun song to be put on a record, in 1928, by the accordionist Joseph Falcon. Roger's version of the deeply traditional Mardi Gras Dance went even further, being pepped up to a frenzy by rock'n'roll drumming.

Roger was born in the small town of Carencro, near Lafayette, a musician's son who began playing the one-row diatonic accordion the locally preferred type of the instrument aged eight. By his mid-teens he was playing in public, but during the 1930s popular taste in rench-speaking south Louisiana swung away from the accordion to a string-band sound, closer to Anglo-American country music. It was not until the instrument enjoyed a revival in the 1950s, thanks to players like Iry LeJune, Nathan Abshire and Roger himself, that he made his mark with his band the Lafayette Playboys.

For 15 years Roger had a television show on KLFY in Lafayette, and he made records for all the south Louisiana labels specialising in Cajun music, such as Goldband, Cajun Classics and, especially, La Louisianne, for whom he recorded numerous singles and three albums.

While Roger was probably most at ease with the native Cajun repertoire of two-steps and waltzes, he was not too hidebound to hire young musicians who could sing rhythm and blues numbers.

"So far as music to dance by," commented the Cajun music historian Pierre Daigle, "there can be no better, but I find that he plays a cool music, and in my opinion it does not stir the heart." Yet, despite this, Roger had a devoted following among both dancers and musicians.

Although he had been inactive since the 1980s, Roger's playing had already influenced a generation of younger accordionists like Reggie Matte, Pat Savant and Wayne Toups, who carry on maintaining this unique music's remarkable survival in the teeth of assimilation.

Aldus Roger, Louisiana French musician, born February 10, 1916; died April 4, 1999.

Tony Russell, The Guardian, Wednesday 2 June 1999

thank you tineg for the music
 "About Aldus, his recordings are *the* reference point for both fans of the dance hall sound and accordionists alike. His style is not as highly embellished or frou-frou as Savoy's or Riley's: it's to the point, clean, concise and driving."



Clifton Chenier
Frenchin' the Boogie

Recording Date: 1976


1.  Caldonia (2:48)
2.  Laissez Les Bons Temps Rouler (3:52)
3.  Tu Peux Cogner (mais tu peux pas rentrer) (2:36)
4.  Le Blues De La Vache A Lait (3:32)
5.  Mo J'ai Une P'tite Femme (2:22)
6.  Tous Les Jours Mon Coeur Est Blue (4:05)
7.  J'veux Faire L'amour A Toi (2:58)
8.  Choo Choo Ch' Boogie (2:49)
9.  La Valse De Paris (3:02)
10.  Shake, Rattle And Roll (2:09)
11.  Going Down Slow (in Paris) (3:44)
12.  Aye, Aye Mama (2:15)
13.  Don't You Lie To Me (2:15)
14.  I Want To Be Your Driver (bonus) (3:05)
The undisputed King Of Zydeco! Nice reissue of one of his best albums, originally released in 1976.

Clifton Chenier, the king of zydeco, is heard in prime form on this reissue from 1976. Since Chenier's first language was French and some of his top fans were from France, many of the selections on this set have his French lyrics to familiar songs. It is quite interesting hearing such numbers as "Let the Good Times Roll," "I've Got a Woman," and "Everyday I Have the Blues" sung in French. Chenier's band, which used a few substitutes for this studio set, is top-notch with the pianist-organist being Stanley Durell, Jr., the future "Buckwheat Zydeco." The music has plenty of blues, rock & roll feeling, and the passion of R&B, all mixed together to form zydeco. While many of the selections are fairly brief, each number features a solid groove and plenty of spirit. Recommended. [The 2007 edition featured one bonus track.] ~ Scott Yanow
Clifton Chenier (June 25, 1925 - December 12, 1987), a Creole French-speaking native of Opelousas, Louisiana, was an eminent performer and recording artist of Zydeco, which arose from Cajun and Louisiana Creole music, with R&B, jazz, and blues influences. He played the accordion and won a Grammy Award in 1983. He also was recognized with a National Heritage Fellowship, and in 1989 was inducted posthumously into the Blues Hall of Fame.



Cajun Dance Hall
1. Bruce Daigrepont - Coeur des Cajuns (Heart of the Cajuns)
2. Jo-El Sonnier - Les Grands Bois
3. Steve Riley & the Mamou Playboys - La Pointe aux Pins
4. Jimmy C. Newman - J'Aurais du T'Aimer (I Should Have Loved You)
5. Beausoleil - Rolling Pin
6. David Doucet - Balfa Waltz
7. Eddie LeJeune - Grande Bosco
8. Mamou - La Danse de Mardi Gras
9. D.L. Menard - Lafayette Two-Step
10. Michael Doucet & Cajun Brew - Bayou Pon Pon
 Both Cajun music and the Creole music that evolved into Zydeco are the products of a combination of influences found only in Southwest Louisiana. According to Alan Lomax in his notes to a CD collection of field recordings in Louisiana that he and his father, John Lomax, completed in the 1930s, "the Cajun and Creole traditions of Southwest Louisiana are unique in the blending of European, African, and Amerindian qualities."


Piano Lirico

Danilo Rea



01. Il Sogno Di Doretta da "La Rondine" (Puccini arr. D. Rea)
02. Mon Coeur S'ouvre A Ta Voix da "Sanson et Dalila" (Saint Saens arr. D.Rea)
03. Intermezzo da "La Cavalleria Rusticana" (Mascagni arr. D.Rea)
04. Envain Pour Eviter da "Carmen" (Bizet arr. D.Rea)
05. Un Bel Di Vedremo da "Madame Butterfly" (Puccini arr. D. Rea)
06. Lucean Le Stelle da "Tosca" (Puccini arr. D. Rea)
07. Va Pensiero Sull'Ali Dorate da "Nabucco" (Verdi arr. D. Rea)
08. L'amour Est Uu Oiseau Rebelle da "Carmen" (Bizet arr. D. Rea)
09. Maria da "West Side Story" (Bernstein arr. D. Rea)
10. Recondita Armonia da "Tosca" (Puccini arr. D. Rea)

One of Italy’s leading jazz pianists, Danilo Rea received a solid musical training, obtaining his degree from the Santa Cecilia Conservatory in Rome. Among the artists he has worked with on-stage and in the recording studios are Chet Baker, Lee Konitz, Steve Grossman, Bob Berg, Michael Breker, Billy Cobam, Aldo Romano, Dave Liebman, Joe Lovano and others. In the field of pop music his peerless credentials include Mina, Pino Daniele, Claudio Baglioni, Fiorella Mannoia and many others. He has worked with Giovanni Tommaso’s quintet “Lingomania” (Top jazz 1987). He has given concerts in Italy ,France, England, US, India, Senegal and China. Together with percussionist Roberto Gatto he recorded Improvvisi (Gala Records). He is currently co-leader of the trio “DOCTOR 3”(with Enzo Pietropaoli and Fabrizio Sferra), one of the most highly-acclaimed groups in Italy. Under the “Via Veneto” label he has recorded the solo CD Lost in Europe which brings together the highlights of his year 2000 tour. He is also much sought-after as a performer in classical music settings. Noteworthy among these are Roberto De Simone’s Requiem for PierPaolo Pasolini under the direction of Zoltan Pesko at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. At the Teatro Rossini in Pesaro, in-ensemble , he performed in “Rossini, mon amour” production for the “Rossini Opera Festival”. He has also appeared with Roberto Gatto in the context of a jazz festival at the Teatro dell’Opera in Rome. In recent years he has dedicated himself to teaching and master classes in jazz and improvisation techniques. 


Ó abre alas

Chiquinha Gonzaga

01. Lua Branca - Joanna
02. Machuca - Daniela Mercury
03. Não Venhas - Emílio Santiago
04. Romance Da Princesa - Roberta Miranda
05. Menina Faceira - Paulinho Moska
06. Cordão Carnavalesco (forrobodó) - Alcione
07. A Brasileira - Adriana Calcanhoto
08. Ô Abre Alas - Marlene
09. A Corte Na Roça - Beto Guedes
10. Atraente - Edson Cordeiro
11. Maxixe Da Zeferina - Beth Carvalho
12. O Que É Sympathia - Zé Ramalho
13. Santa - Zélia Duncan
14. Namorados Da Lua - Milton Nascimento
15. O Namoro - Renato Teixeira
16. Corta Jaca - Marcos Viana
17. Um Novo Século - Marcus Viana

 Maria Teresa Madeira: piano
Trilha da minissérie Chiquinha Gonzaga. Sempre ao final de cada capítulo da minissérie, exibida em 1999, pela Rede Globo, um cantor interpretava uma composição de Chiquinha, acompanhado de um pianista. Este CD reúne algumas destas interpretações, além de uma apresentação do violinista Marcus Viana e a pianista Maria Teresa Madeira com a música "O Corta-Jaca". O tema de abertura da minissérie, Um novo Século, composto especialmente por Marcus Viana, também faz parte deste repertório.
CHIQUINHA GONZAGA (BIRTHNAME: FRANCISCA EDWIGES NEVES GONZAGA) (October 17, 1847–February 28, 1935) Brazil: Composer, Musician

Born in Rio de Janeiro, Chiquinha Gonzaga was a pioneer in both her professional and social lives as the first female composer, conductor, performer, music teacher, and writer in Brazil to utilize her own work to ensure her personal survival. She was involved in many important changes that swept through Brazilian society at the turn of the century. She had to struggle in order to assert herself as an accomplished musician within a male-dominated environment; in the same way, she worked for the end of slavery and the opening of a republican society. She questioned social rules and traditional female roles throughout her life and established and lived under an order she forged for herself.

Gonzaga’s mother, Rosa María de Lima, was a mestiza (of mixed European and indigenous blood) who had Francisca, her first child, while still single. Her father, Lieutenant José Basileu Neves Gonzaga, recognized Francisca Gonzaga’s paternity eight months later and formed a family with Lima. His action was highly unusual for that time. His family did not approve of the marriage because of Lima’s social position, the circumstances of the marriage, and racial prejudice. Nevertheless, Francisca Gonzaga had a family, siblings, and access to an adequate education. A priest instructed her in writing, reading, mathematics, and religion and provided her with an introduction to foreign languages. A conductor, Lobo, and an uncle, Antonio Eliseu, were responsible for her musical formation.

Gonzaga was married at the age of sixteen to Jacinto Ribeiro do Amaral, a businessman chosen by her family, with whom she had three children. Problems in their marriage, including her husband’s forbidding her to play the piano and guitar, led Gonzaga to leave him. The ensuing scandal was crucial for her career and future attitudes. In line with prevailing societal attitudes, her parents disapproved of her behavior and did not allow her to return home. To support herself, she began to play the piano professionally in ensembles and created a family of other musicians. She met an engineer, João Batista de Carvalho Júnior, with whom she lived. Their union produced a daughter but, in approximately 1875, Gonzaga left both of them. Again, she was met with a social condemnation that worsened her already tarnished reputation.

At the same time she faced social sanctions for her dismissal of traditional female roles, she achieved professional success. She played at pastry shops and cabarets and composed a hit in 1877, the polka “Atraente” (Attractive). Taking advantage of the flourishing popularity of musical theater, she began to write songs and even lyrics for musical plays, a principal source of her growing importance in popular music. While living in a poor neighborhood, she observed the popularity of street festivals and celebrations. This inspired her to compose the first written carnival march, “Ó abre alas” (Make Way, composed between 1897 and 1899), which is still popular today. During this period, she worked not only in Brazil but also in Portugal, and there are records of her visits to that country in 1902 and 1904, with a longer stay from 1906 to 1909. Meanwhile, she met a Portuguese musician, João Batista Fernandes Lage, thirty-six years her junior, and took him as her lover. Chiquinha Gonzaga, now a mature woman, foresaw another scandal in the making. Thus, in 1902, she introduced João Batista as her son and, with this pretense, they lived together until her death in 1935.

Her philosophy toward life and her desire to break down social barriers and flout conventions fuel the lyrics of her still popular carnival march, “Ó abre alas”; “Make way / I want to pass through / Rosa de Ouro [a carnival group] is going to win / Throw open your wings / I want to pass through / I am a bohemian / that I cannot deny.”

This composition, set against the background of carnival, can be considered a statement of self-affirmation and independence. The emphasis on the first-person pronoun, placed in a carnival march, produces a dialectical meaning. The self-affirmation of Gonzaga, as a composer, is underscored by the first-person pronoun as both singular and female. However, its performance assumes a collective character because it is sung by a large group of people who are having fun in the carnival crowd. When her music was played and sung during carnival by the population, which was part of a thoroughly male-oriented society at that time, a new order is invoked as Gonzaga and other Brazilian women abandon their passivity to take an active new role. This is made clear when she asserts her undeniable bohemian behavior, a behavior restricted to men at that time. There is also a sense of profanity and mockery because she employs the march, originally a “serious” musical form used in solemn situations such as military parades and funeral processions, in a carnival context. Therefore, a conventionally rigid and ordered form is used in a context of extreme flexibility and disorder. Furthermore, Gonzaga indirectly criticizes society, the military life, and her family, especially on her father’s side—all of them bound by strict rules that, in turn, they tried to impose on her.

Ultimately, “Ó abre alas” has as its main characteristic the striking display of paradox in order to challenge it. The dualities of male and female, individual and collective, passive and active, rigid and flexible are all being challenged, as well as seriousness and joy and discipline and insubordination. “Ó abre alas” questions the rules of society and gender. It transforms the social axis from male to female. Through the pairing of rhyming verbs, Gonzaga turned negation into victory and denied the status quo in favor of a new kind of consciousness, the realization of female freedom.

Gonzaga, however, was not just concerned with gender. Other important contributions to Brazilian popular music were songs Gonzaga composed for the burleta Forrobodó (1912) by Luiz Peixoto and Carlos Bettencourt. This play, a huge success, was performed more than 1,500 times in Brazil. The burleta is a particular musical theater genre adapted to Brazilian taste. It comes from operetta and has its roots in the Italian opera buffa or comic opera. Forrobodó was the name of a suburban nightclub attended mainly by Afro-Brazilians and lower-income people. The performance shows the audience the types of people found in Brazil: the mulata(dark-skinned woman), the mulato (dark-skinned man), the malandro (the idler), the Portuguese immigrant, and the French prostitute. The variety of characters mirrored the spectrum of Brazilian people, the mixture of races and colors, which the audience enthusiastically accepted. It is considered the first time that daily life and the common idiom were performed on a Brazilian stage.

Gonzaga composed songs that, if analyzed in their function, demonstrate the specificities of this Brazilian musical theater genre. Forrobodó has danceable musical numbers that express the peculiarities or stereotypes of its characters, such as the sensuality of the mulata or the social maneuverability of the malandro, through a wide use of syncopations and rhythmic variations that, in conjunction with the lyrics, allow for a better portrayal and profile of the character. Gonzaga also employed an ample variety of rhythmic styles, well known and popular in Brazil at that time, such as the waltz, polka, modinha (a type of ballad), carnival march, quadrilha (quadrille), and desafio (challenge). This mixture of foreign rhythms with ones nationalized or created in Brazil is very common in Brazilian popular music and has always played a fundamental role in Brazilian musicianship.

Gonzaga was sensitive to this inherent eclecticism, and this was her main musical characteristic—a whole and unbiased approach to Brazilian music that celebrated its diversity. In 1914 Gonzaga’s instrumental composition written in 1895 and called “O corta-jaca” (a type of dance step) or “Gaúcho” (cowboy) with a maxixe rhythm (a precursor of the samba) was performed on the guitar at an official party held at the government palace. This was a double scandal in Brazilian society because the type of the music played was associated with lower-class society; moreover, the instrument used, the guitar, was related to bohemians and drunkards. Furthermore, it was a markedly popular song written by a woman of questionable reputation. However, this tune became so famous that Darius Milhaud quoted it in his experimental polytonal medley Le Boeuf sur le toit (The Ox on the Rooftop, 1919–1920). Obviously, there was recognition of Brazilian popular music and Gonzaga’s work. Gonzaga’s innovations went beyond music to policy and the legal rights of writers. For example, in 1917, she founded the first association for theatrical authors’ copyrights (SBAT) to protect people who write plays and music for the theater.

She was attacking a system of exploitation of the authors by publishers, a system of which Gonzaga was one of many victims. This association is still active, and its headquarters, in Rio de Janeiro, maintains Gonzaga’s archive with all the material that she produced. Unfortunately, most manuscripts have not been well preserved. Gonzaga’s last work was composed in 1933, for the operetta Maria, when she was eighty-five years old. The playscript was by Viriato Corrêa, an accomplished Brazilian author of romance who was not very familiar with theatrical writing. Throughout the play Gonzaga made corrections and adjustments to Corrêa’s lyrics, often recycling her old material. Gonzaga’s works include waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, habaneras, Brazilian tangos, modinhas, choros (literally, laments), maxixes, carnival marches, and many other popular genres as well as religious pieces. She wrote for piano, band, vocal, orchestra, and chamber ensembles. Through her work, she engaged in social and political arenas, selling her manuscripts to raise money to free a slave musician or participating in meetings to change the political regime. In every case, she demonstrated a unique personal and determined reaction to the problems posed to her, constantly risking misunderstanding and scandal, but also creating opportunities for her sometimes revolutionary ideas. Her work contributed substantially to her vision and critique of society. Her actions and way of life made opinions concrete, which, in turn, opened up new horizons for Brazilian women.

Lua Branca

Maria Teresa Madeira
Chiquinha Gonzaga


01. Lua Branca
02. Dama de Ouros
03. Atraente
04. Faceiro
05. Plangente
06. Bijou
07. Sedutor
08. Bionne
09. Tim Tim
10. Recitativo (a Corte Na Roça)
11. Valsa (a Corte Na Roça)
12. Fogo Foguinho
13. Annita
14. Não Insístas Rapariga
15. Cananéa
16. Viva o Carnaval
17. Quadrilha (forrobodó)
18. Tema (forrobodó)
19. Cordão (forrobodó)
20. Gaúcho
21. Abre Alas
Maria Teresa Madeira: solo piano


Convidada por Marcus Viana a gravar a trilha sonora da minissérie Chiquinha Gonzaga, exibida em 1999, pela Rede Globo, Maria Teresa Madeira dedicou à compositora o primeiro volume da coleção Mestres da Música da gravadora sonhos&sons, onde apresenta arranjos inéditos e interpreta Chiquinha com muita vivacidade. Destaque para as músicas: Lua Branca Quadrilha, Cordão e o Tema da Opereta Forrobodó 

Lua Branca
(Chiquinha Gonzaga)

Ó! Lua Branca, de fulgores e de encantos,
se é verdade que ao amor tu dás abrigo,
vem tirar os olhos meus o pranto,
ai vem matar esta paixão que anda comigo.

Ai, por quem és, desce do céu, ó Lua Branca,
essa amargura do meu peito... ó, vem, arranca,
dá-me o luar de tua compaixão,
ó, vem por Deus, iluminar meu coração.

E quantas vezes lá no céu me aparecias,
a brilhar em noite calma e constelada,
em tua luz então me surpreendias
ajoelhado junto aos pés da minha amada.

E a chorar, a soluçar cheia de pejo,
vinha, em seus lábios, me ofertar um doce beijo,
ela partiu me abandonou assim...
ó, Lua Branca, por quem és tem dó de mim.

An erudite artist who, early in her career, opted for developing works in the popular area, Maria Teresa Madeira has been devoting herself to the choro genre, interpreting Ernesto Nazareth (her 1997 album, among others, is dedicated to the Belle Époque composer, and is shared with mandolinist Pedro Amorim) and Chiquinha Gonzaga). In the popular field, she backed artists like Beth Carvalho, Lenine, Paulinho Moska, Joanna, Zé Ramalho, Leila Pinheiro, and Alcione on the TV series Chiquinha Gonzaga, also recording its piano soundtrack. Together with Henrique Cazes, Omar Cavalheiro, Marcus Nimrichter, and Oscar Bolão, she assembled again the Quinteto Radamés in 2000, renamed as Novo Quinteto. Her 2000 CD (her 11th solo) was shared with harmonica player Rildo Hora. In 2001, she toured the U.S., divulging the choro and presenting its similarities with ragtime. Madeira received her B.A. in piano at the Escola de Música da Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro and her M.A. in piano performance and pedagogy at Iowa University (U.S.) During the three years she spent there, she was selected by the Performing Arts Council and performed in several American cities. She was a soloist in several orchestras, including the Orquestra Sinfônica Brasileira, the Cedar Rapids Symphony, and the University of Iowa Chamber Orchestra. Among the conductors with whom she performed are Isaac Karabitchevsky, Aylton Escobar, Christin Tyinmeyer, and Andrée Dagenais. She performed in a duo with international artists like Alain Marion, Alain Damiens, Leopold LaFosse, Leon Biriotti, Gottfried Engells, Paula Robinson, and Roman Mekinulov. In Brazil, she has been working with names like Paulo Sérgio Santos, Alceu de Almeida Reis, Aloysio Fagerlande, Radegundis Feitosa, Carol McDavit, Rildo Hora, and Pedro Amorim. She performed internationally in 1998 in Bogota, Colombia, in duo with clarinetist Paulo Sérgio Santos  and, in 1999, in New York, NY, with trombonist Radegundis Feitosa. As a musical director and pianist, she worked in several theater plays, such as Forrobodó (for which she recieved the Mambembe award for Best Theatrical Play in 1995), A História da Baratinha (for which she won a Coca Cola award), Iluminando a História (for which she was nominated for the 1999 Coca Cola award for Best Musical Direction), and O Garoto Noel (for which she was a finalist for the Coca Cola theater award in 1999).
~ Alvaro Neder, Rovi


Son Jarocho

Tlen-Huicani - Jarocho


01. El Jarocho
02. La Bruja
03. La Sarna
04. El Balaju
05. El Toro Requeson
06. Tlacotalpan
07. El Colas
08. El Gavilancito
09. Nicolasa
10. El Jarabe Loco
11. La Tuza
12. El Guapo
13. La Bamba
14. El Aguanieve
15. El Jaqueton
16. El Borracho
17. La Vieja
18. El Fandanguito
19. El Zacamandu-Toro Abajeño
20. La Risa
21. El Buscapies
22. El Trompo
23. El Huapanguito
24. Arpista Veracruzano
From the capital city of Veracruz, Jalapa, Tlen-Huicani (pronounced wee-KAH-ne) is one of the most faithful interpreters of the traditional folk music of that state and also that of much of Latin America.

Tlen-Huicani, which means "the singers" in the indigenous Indian language of Nahuatl, has taken the beautiful "harpa jarocha" or folk harp, and has made it the centerpiece of their music.

Founded in 1973, the group was named best folk group in Mexico by the union of music and theater critics. Group director, Alberto de la Rosa, is one of the most respected musicians in all of Mexico, and is considered among the most outstanding folk harpists in the world.  In 2003 the group celebrated another landmark, when they completed 30 years of unforgettable music.


What is the current state of the son jarocho? While the roots of the son jarocho are in southern Veracruz, those who have decided to earn a living as jarocho musicians have for the past sixty years found it more profitable to leave Veracruz for Mexico city  or other tourist areas. Ensembles such as "Conjunto Tierra Blanca" , founded in the 1950's and directed by Marios Barradas Murcia,  have earned a living playing their native music and many of these urban jarocho ensembles have not only traveled throughout the world and recorded various albums but have also taught hundreds of students abroad how to play the son jarocho in University workshops and in school's such as Mexico city's "Escuela de la Muscia Mexicana". Although the  traditional manner of transmitting the son jarocho from generation to generation is common, the aspect of  teaching  the son jarocho to students in an academic setting is new and  a vibrant new part of the son jarocho tradition.

In Xalapa, Veracruz the Universidad Veracruzana is the home of Grupo Tlen-Huicani and its director, Prof. Alberto de la Rosa, who has had a great influence in promoting the  preservation of the son jarocho and Latin American folk music. For over 35 years, Tlen-Huicani has remained one of the most faithful interpreters of the traditional folk music of Veracruz, Mexico and most of Latin America. Since 1973, their music and international achievements have earned them the honor of 'Best Folk Group in Mexico' by the Union of Music and Theater Critics.

Another wave of preservation called the "Movimiento Jaranero" began in the late 1970's which saw contemporary ensembles who had developed a style from the more commercial urban ensembles in the 1940's as steering away too much from its roots. These "renovadores" have concentrated on preserving the fandango setting (the traditional celebratory environment of the son jarocho) such as at the annual "Encuentro de Jaraneros" in Tlacotalpan, Veracruz. The movimiento stresses the Afro-caribbean aspects of the son jarocho and at the head of this movement is grupo Mono Blanco who since 1978 has recorded various albums, traveled throughout the world, and conducted various workshops and conferences concentrating on their unique style of the son jarocho. Although commercialization and the birth of the professional musician has had an effect on the son jarocho tradition in Veracruz , the age old folk tradition of playing the son jarocho as a pastime is still alive and well. While we will always have the commercial recordings of professional groups such as Medellin, Tlalixcoyan, Tlen-huicani and others, there are hundreds of musicians throughout southern Veracruz who are unknown and continue a tradition which is over two hundred years old.

Thanks Ana for the music!


The Queen of Los Portales

La Negra Graciana
Sones Jarochos con el Trío Silva


01. La guacamaya
02. El pájaro cú
03. El torito
04. El siquisirí
05. La bamba
06. El pájaro carpintero
07. La tienda
08. La iguana
09. La tuza
10. El butaquito
11. El jarabe loco
12. La vieja
13. El canelo
14. El ahualulco
15. La María Chuchena
16. El balajú
17. El cascabel
18. La morena

 The Queen of Los Portales 
Now in her late sixties, Graciana is the first lady of son jarocho, the traditional music of the state Veracruz. This music, together with the mariarchi music and the sones from Jalisco, is the most popular in Mexico. Graciana, who plays the harp and sings, comes from a small village near Medellin de Bravo in Veracruz and made her album-debut ´Sones Jarochos´ with Trio Silva in 1994. Till then she had never left her own region; but she then toured Europe and the USA often and appeared for the first time in Mexico City. In 1999 she issued ´La Graciana En Vivo´, a live recording of a concert in the renowned Theatre de la Ville in Paris.
The fairytale curriculum vitae of the singing harpist who rose from rags to riches in her sixties recalls that of Cesaria Evoria from Cape Verde and that of the blind singer Dona Rosa from Portugal. La Negra Graciana spent half a century in lugging her harp along streets and performing there. As a child she had begun by playing with her father and brothers at family and folk festivals in the locality then had later played mostly as a soloist in Los Portales, a borough with many terraces in Veracruz harbour, where street musicians play nearly all day.

One day Eduardo Lleranas, very fond of traditional Mexican music and owner of the label Corason, pricked up his ears. Greatly impressed by Graciana´s archaic yet fresh way of playing the harp and her energetic singing, he decided to make a recording and soon came back from Mexico City to Veracruz, to set to work with La Negra Graciana, her younger brother, Pino Silva, who sings and plays the little Jarana guitar, and her sister-in-law Elena Huerta. Elena is likewise a harpist and owns, outside the city, a small turkey-farm which they used as an improvised studio. In this country idyll they recorded 18 pieces - many traditional and sometimes very old sones jarochos, which Graciana´s father had loved in his own day, like ´El siquisin´ or ´El balaju´. This first recording also included the piece ´La bamba´, which is known in many versions, like one from the rock-band Los Lobos.

But not only Graciana´s interpretation of these widely known evergreens won her the hearing of listeners outside Mexico. It was her special way of playing the harp ´a lo antigüito´, as she herself says. Her way is slower and less ornate than that of several of her colleagues, who since the 50s have been trying to make the son jarocho prettier and more commercial. Yet though the special colour of the harp´s sounds may be the most notable feature of Graciana´s music, she seldom uses the harp as a solo instrument. Rather it accompanies the décimas, the improvised song verses, in which the singer and her brother Pino reflect on anything and everything.

On hearing Graciana in 1997 in Mexico City, Ry Cooder was as delighted for her sones - the combination of the harp with cheeky and shrill singing. By then Graciana Silva was already used to presenting her music to an alien public, be it in other parts of Mexico or even abroad. As soon as her debut album appeared in 1994 she was invited to various festivals in Europe and the USA.

For her performances, La Negra Graciana appears with a typical son-jarocho ensemble. Besides her arpa jarocha there are two smaller percussive guitars, known as jarana, and also a requinto, a four-stringed guitar, which is plucked in a rhythm counter to the harp´s. Mexican sones have always been associated with certain dance-traditions, so Graciana´s concerts include dancers whenever possible, who contribute to the rhythms with their huapangos and zapateos.

The concept ´son´ stands in Mexico for a wide and various repertoire of traditional music with regional differences. The sones from Veracruz are called jarochos like the town´s residents. If La Negra Graciana is asked about her style of playing, she calls it ´very jarocho and veracruzano, since the whole area round the coastal town Veracruz is simply a place where jarochos have come together´.

Veracruz, the ´harbour of the New World´, in the Gulf of Mexico is where Cortés troops landed to found the first Mexican town. Its music´s rhythmic accents and echoes of call and response recall the African extraction of part of its population. And even the dark-haired Graciana Silva has this mixture in her own blood, which has brought her the affectionate nickname ´La Negra de Veracruz´.
Graciana Silva, La Negra Graciana, is a unique artist in Mexican popular music: a harpist and singer from Veracruz who plays the classic repertoire of sones jarochos in a style that is difficult to hear in Mexico today. Her direct, impassioned vocals and the complex counter-rhythms that she plays so effortlessly on the harp suggest the West African influence in this music. Graciana, who's been playing professionally since she was 10 years old, is accompanied by her brother on jarana guitar and by Elena Huerta on the second harp and chorus although on several tracks she plays, as she prefers, alone.



Yo no soy marinero, soy capitan...

La Bamba

1. José Gutiérrez y Los Hermanos Ochoa - La Bamba
2. La Negra Graciana - La Bamba
3. Lila Downs - La Bamba
4. La Negra Graciana With Trio Silva - La Bamba
5. Conjunto de Santiago Tuxtla  - La Bamba
6. Pedro Ruiz, Salterio - La Bamba
7. Mariachis Mexico - La Bamba
8. Orquesta Sinfónica de de Xalapa - La Bamba
9. Grupo Mono Blanco - La Bamba
10. Grupo Chicontepec - La Bamba
11. Chucho Gil y los Copleros - La Bamba
12. Alegrías De A Peso - La Bamba
13. Son de Mar - La Bamba
14. Conjunto Rio Blanco - La Bamba
15. Conjunto Jardin - La Bamba
16. Conjunto Jarocho Lindo Veracruz - La Bamba
17. Conjunto Jarocho Villa del Mar - La Bamba
18. Conjunto Villa del Mar - La Bamba
19. Son de Tres Zapotes - La Bamba
20. Los nacionales de Jacinto Gatica - La Bamba
21. Los Negritos - La Bamba
22. Los Rogacianos - La Bamba
23. Tlen Huicani y Lino Chavez - La Bamba
24. Son de Madera - La Bamba
25. Villa Cardel - La Bamba
26. VA - La Bamba
27. Los Vega - La Bamba
28. Mariachi Miguel Diaz - La Bamba
29. Tlen Huicani - La Bamba
30. La Negra Graciana - La Bamba
"La Bamba" is a Mexican folk song, originally from the state of Veracruz.

Influenced by Spanish flamenco and a traditional mambo latin rhythm, the song uses jarana jarocha, guitar, and harp. Lyrics to the song greatly vary, as performers often improvise verses while performing. However, versions such as those by musical groups Mariachi Vargas de Tecalitlan and Los Pregoneros del Puerto have survived because of the artists' popularity. The traditional aspect of "La Bamba" lies in the tune itself, which remains the almost the same through most versions.The name of the dance, which has no direct English translation, is presumably connected with the Spanish verb bambolear, meaning "to shake" or perhaps "to stomp".

The traditional "La Bamba" is often played during weddings in Veracruz, where the bride and groom perform the accompanying dance. Today this wedding tradition is not done as frequently as in the past, but the dance is still popular, perhaps through the popularity of ballet folklórico. The dance is performed displaying the newly-wed couple’s unity through the performance of complicated, delicate steps in unison as well as through creation of a bow from a listón, a long red ribbon, using only their feet.

The "arriba" (literally "up") part of the song suggests the nature of the dance, in which the footwork, called "zapateado", is done faster and faster as the music tempo accelerates. The repeated lyric, "Yo no soy marinero, soy capitán" (lit: "I am not a sailor, I am a captain"), refers to Veracruz's marine locale and perhaps the husband's promise that he will remain faithful to his wife.
Para bailar la bamba
para bailar la bamba, se necesita
una copa di gracia,
una copa di gracia para mi, para ti.

Y arriba, y arriba,
y arriba, y arriba, por ti sere,
por ti sere, por ti sere.

Yo no soy marinero,
yo no soy marinero, soy capitán,
soy capitan, soy capitán.

Bamba la bamba.
Bamba la bamba.
Bamba la bamba.
The Son Jarocho is the result of a mixture of Spanish Seguidillas (For some reason this word has been deformed into "Seguiriyas") and Fandangos, with Cuban "Zapateados and Guajiras".

A unique 39 string harp is the very soul of "Jarocho music", does not only carry the melody, but the also the harmony, the speed and the ambiance of the "Son". Accompaniment is provided by other string instruments and the most commanding selection is "La Bamba". Regarded as the Veracruz anthem, La Bamba is just as popular as the famous Hat Dance for Mexicans. The song was definitely composed in Veracruz, but a strong Cuban accent can be perceived in the rhythm. Dancing is Spanish in essence, it is a courtship dance where partners take turns to execute an intricate foot stomping routine while tying a ribbon into a bow.