Caval, Fluier, Cimpoi

Ștefan Dicu
"Jocuri mândre de la noi"


01. Sarba-n bataie, Sarba ca la Vartop, Sarba ca la Vrata (caval, bagpipe, flute)
02. Hora cujmirenilor - caval
03. Baluta - caval
04. Hora ca la Gruia - flute
05. Sarba ca la Corbu - flute
06. Sarba ca la Calafat - bagpipe
07. Tinca popii, Hora pe furate, Hora-n doua parti (caval, flute, bagpipe)
08. Sarba ca la Prejna - caval
09. Boierasca - caval
10. Bulgareanca - flute
11. Hora Nutei - flute
12. Floricica - bagpipe

Ștefan Dicu: caval, flute (fluier), bagpipe (cimpoi).
& Orchestra Ansamblului "Maria Tanase" Din Craiova

The caval is an aerophone instrument of Balkan farmers, especially shepherds. It can be found throughout in the south east (Wallachia, Oltenia, Moldavia) as well as in the mountains of central Romania. The caval is a big straight flute (approximately 80 cm long) made of ash, cherry or plane wood. It consists of a tube partially closed at the top by a cork (dop) with five finger holes and a rectangular mouth hole (vranã) on the opposite side.

Farmers make the caval in a number of sizes. The one in the photo is an average size, about 76 cm in length. Recently, the caval has been tuned to an F-scale to make it easier to play in folk music groups.

The caval can produce from two to four or five partial sounds simultaneously. Its hoarse, soft and expressive tone is sometimes imitated by violinists who play "like the caval". Its instrumental effects include changing pitch in the same piece (by blowing harder) and playing in parallel octaves (on the first and second harmonics).

When playing the caval, the musician produces a throaty sound: "in tune" and stable in relation to the melody (in Oltenia) or of an undetermined and fluctuating pitch (in Wallachia and Moldavia, like the recording here). The caval can easily play complex melodies that are highly ornamented with appogiatura, mordents, trills, small glissandi and tremolos. Its rich and varied repertoire includes long songs (doinã), lyric songs in instrumental versions, dance tunes and the instrumental poem "The shepherd who lost his sheep".


Pipe musicians are generally from rural Romanian backgrounds and not from gypsy lăutari families. In the town and state ensembles they play fluier and caval, with additions of tilinca, nai, cimpoi (bagpipe) and may be other not so common pipes, clarinet or taragot, and when it comes to their solo this is most often a suite which progresses through all the different pipes in succession.
( : ♥ : )

1 comment:

kokolo said...

Hooves are all over the place!
Ass is kicking!